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The Protein Pages

Arrestin (SAG)

To see compiled data on further species click on the topics.
To see the reference for the human data click on the data

Editor's Notes from the Literature

Recent update from: 04.01.2000


Description
Arrestin (SAG, CAR) binds phosphorylated photopigments at the 1st and 3rd cytoplasmic loop thus blocking interaction of transducin with the photoexcited light receptor of the visual cascade.

GENE DATA


Exons:
SAG: CAR:
16 17

Regulatory elements:
SAG: CAR:
No TATA-
No GC-
No CAAT-box
PCE1-element

COUP binds Hormonal Response Element in bovine SAG
PCE1-like element,
Helix-Loop-Helix binding site,
TATA-box,
CAAT-box

Markers / RFLPs:
SAG: CAR:
D2S172 - D2S345

Transcripts:
SAG: CAR:
1,9 kb

Primers:
SAG: CAR:
Exons 2-16
Chromosomes with SAG/CAR loci

Assignment:

SAG: CAR:
2q37 Xcen-q21

Involvement in Retinal Degenerations:


click here to see a compilation of

CLICK

several Mutations found to underlie

Oguchi disease

ARRP

PROTEIN DATA


Subunits: 1
SAG: CAR:
rods cones

Amino acids:
SAG: CAR:
403 388

Mr/ Weight:
SAG: CAR:
45050 42519
Modifications:
SAG: CAR:



Cofactors:
SAG: CAR:
None None

PROTEIN DATA

Click on entry to see database record online
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Protein Subtype Locus Species EC-No. Swissprot PIR Prosite
Arrestin
SAG Bos taurus EC- P08168 I46054 A28404 A23619 S02144 A25826 B28404 S51073 PS00295
Arrestin
Arr Calliphora vicina EC-
A55081
Arrestin
Arr-2 Calliphora vicina EC-
A55081 S44291 S44292
Arrestin
SAG Canis familiaris EC- Q28281

Arrestin
Arr Drosophila melanogaster EC- P15372 A34867 A34868
Arrestin
SAG Drosophila miranda EC-
S11566
Arrestin
SAG Homo sapiens EC- Q99858 P10523 S38943 A30357 PS00295
Arrestin
SAG Locusta migratoria EC-
A56607 B56607
Arrestin rod SAG Mus musculus EC- P20443

Arrestin cone SAG Rana catesbeiana EC- P51481 S68175 PS00295
Arrestin rod SAG Rana catesbeiana EC- P51478 S68174 PS00295
Arrestin rod SAG Rana pipiens EC- P51479

Arrestin cone SAG Rattus norvegicus EC- P36576

Arrestin rod SAG Rattus norvegicus EC- P15887 S03960 A44804 PS00295
Arrestin cone CAR Xenopus laevis EC- P51483 S68175 PS00295
Arrestin rod SAG Xenopus laevis EC- P51477


GENE DATA

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Gene Subtype Locus Species Genbank Unigene Medline
Arrestin
SAG Bos taurus S63407 U08346 L14641
93309474 93340166 94253112
Arrestin
Arr-2 Calliphora erythrocephala X79073
95014564
Arrestin
Arr-1 Calliphora erythrocephala X79072
95014564
Arrestin
SAG Canis familiaris X98460
97243904
Arrestin
Arr Drosophila melanogaster M30140 M30177
90138926 90138925
Arrestin type B ArrB Drosophila melanogaster L33398 AE003554 M32141
95369686
Arrestin type B Arr-B Drosophila miranda L33399
95369686
Arrestin
SAG Homo sapiens M38064 X12453 U70970 U70971 U70972 U70973 U70974 U70975 U70976 U70962 U70963 U70964 U70965 U70966 U70967 U70968 U70969 NM_000541 Hs.32721 91065869 88271621 97172975
Arrestin type 3 retinal ARR3 Homo sapiens AF033105 S66793 U03626 Hs.308
Arrestin X-Arr retinal CAR Homo sapiens AF033105 S66793 U03626
94039835 96196574 94140868
Arrestin
SAG Limulus polyphemus. U08883
95096819
Arrestin cone SAG Rana catesbeiana U30268 X92401
96128171
Arrestin rod SAG Rana catesbeiana U30267 X92399
96128171
Arrestin cone SAG Rana pipiens U30270 X92400
96128171
Arrestin rod SAG Rana pipiens U30269 X92398
96128171
Arrestin cone SAG Rattus norvegicus U03628
9414089
Arrestin rod SAG Rattus norvegicus X51781 X15353 M60737
91011378 89232142
Arrestin
SAG Sus scrofa S82664
96273620
Arrestin cone CAR Xenopus laevis L40463
95237390
Arrestin rod SAG Xenopus laevis U41623
99269097


GENE LOCUS DATA

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Gene Subtype Locus Species Genome Database Mouse Genome Database OMIM Locus Link
Arrestin type B ArrB Drosophila melanogaster


38993
Arrestin
SAG Homo sapiens 120365
181031 258100 6295
Arrestin type 3 retinal ARR3 Homo sapiens

301770 407
Arrestin rod SAG Mus musculus
Sag


References:
1. Calabrese,G., Sallese,M., Stornaiuolo,A., Stuppia,L., Palka,G., and Deblasi,A. Chromosome mapping of the human arrestin (SAG), beta- arrestin 2 (ARRB2), and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 (ADRBK2) genes. 1994; Genomics. 23: 286-288.
Goto Top
2. Craft,C.M., Whitmore,D.H., and Wiechmann,A.F. Cone arrestin identified by targeting expression of a functional family. 1994; J.Biol.Chem. 269: 4613-4619.
Goto Top Link to PudMed
3. Fuchs,S., Nakazawa,M., Maw,M., Tamai,M., Oguchi,Y., and Gal,A. A homozygous 1-base pair deletion in the arrestin gene is a frequent cause of Oguchi disease in Japanese. 1995; Nat.Genet. 10: 360-362.
Goto Top Link to PudMed
4. Inana,G., Sakuma,H., Higashide,T., Yajima,T., McLaren,M.J., and Murakami,A. Cloning, characterization, and candidate gene analysis of the gene encoding X-arrestin, a new retinal arrestin. 1995; Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 36: S222-S222
Goto Top
5. Kikuchi,T. and Shinohara,T. Photoreceptor conserved element (PCE-1) associated with photoreceptor specific promotor activity were found in arrestin genes of -12 to -24 of the mouse and first intron of bovine. 1994; Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 35: 1578-1578.
Goto Top
6. Kimura,A., Nakamura,M., Kikuchi,T., and Shinohara,T. Hormonal response elements in the bovine arrestin promotor bind to COUP factor and regulate its expression. 1997; Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 38: S1130-S1130
Goto Top
7. Sakuma,H., Murakami,A., Yajima,T., McLaren,M.J., and Inana,G. Cloning and analysis of X-arrestin: A new retinal arrestin mapping to the X chromosome. 1994; Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 35: 1265-1265.
Goto Top
8. Yamaki,K., Tsuda,M., Kikuchi,T., Chen,K.H., Huang,K.P., and Shinohara,T. Structural organization of the human S-antigen gene. cDNA, amino acid, intron, exon, promoter, in vitro transcription, retina, and pineal gland. 1990; J.Biol.Chem. 265: 20757-20762.
Goto Top Link to PudMed
9. Yamaki,K., Tsuda,M., and Shinohara,T. The sequence of human retinal S-antigen reveals similarities with alpha-transducin. 1988; FEBS Letters. 234: 39-43.
Goto Top Link to PudMed
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This site is maintained and edited by
Dr. rer. medic. Markus Preising, Dipl.Biol.
Molecular Genetics Laboratory
Department of Paediatric Ophthalmology, Strabismology and Ophthalmogenetics
University of Regensburg
Head: Prof. Dr. med. Birgit Lorenz