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The Protein Pages

Photopigments
(BCP, GCP, RCP)

To see compiled data on further species click on the topics.
To see the reference for the human data click on the data

Editor's Notes from the Literature

Recent update from: 27.06.00


Description
Photopigments are located in photoreceptor outer segment disc membranes. They change their conformation on the perception of photons. The conformational change allows the photopigment to interact with transducin and to start the visual cascade.
Four photopigments can be differentiated. While rods contain only rhodopsin three types of cones are present in human retinas which contain different photopigments of specific absorption maxima: long wave (red, RCP, 560 nm), middle wave (green, GCP, 530 nm), and short wave (blue, BCP, 420 nm)(4) pigments.

GENE DATA

Exons:

Photopigment
BCP 5
GCP 6
RCP 6

Primers:

Photopigment
BCP
GCP
RCP

Regulatory elements:

Photopigment
BCP TATA- and CAAT-boxes
GCP
  • LCR between 3.1 and 3.7 kb 5' of the RCP gene transcription initiation site
  • RCP
  • LCR between 3.1 and 3.7 kb 5' of the RCP gene transcription initiation site
  • Transcripts:

    Photopigment
    BCP
    GCP
    RCP

    Markers/RFLPs:

    Photopigment
    BCP
    GCP
    RCP
    Chromosomes with photopigment loci

    Assignment:

    Photopigment
    BCP 7q31-q35
    GCP Xq28
    RCP Xq28

    Involvement in Retinal Degenerations:


    click here to see a compilation of

    CLICK

    several Mutations found to underlie

    Tritanopia

    Deuteranopia

    Protanopia

    PROTEIN DATA


    Photopigments:
    Photopigment
    BCP 1
    GCP 1
    RCP 1

    Amino acids:

    Photopigment
    BCP 348 AA
    GCP 364 AA
    RCP 364 AA

    Modifications:

    Photopigment
    BCP
    GCP
    RCP

    Mr/ Weight:

    Photopigment
    BCP
    GCP ?/47.1 KDa
    RCP ?/47.1 KDa

    Cofactors:

    Photopigment
    BCP 11-cis retinal
    GCP
    RCP

    PROTEIN DATA

    Click on entry to see database record online
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    Protein Subtype Locus Species EC-No. Swissprot PIR Prosite
    Colour Pigment blue BCP Bos taurus EC- P51490 A54679 B54679 PS00237 PS00238
    Colour Pigment 543 nm BCP Callithrix jaccus EC-
    S26356
    Colour Pigment 556 nm RCP Callithrix jaccus EC-
    S26355
    Colour Pigment 563 nm GCP Callithrix jaccus EC-
    S22713 S43497 S26356 S26355
    Colour Pigment red
    Capra hircus EC-
    Q95170 PS00237 PS00238
    Colour Pigment blue BCP Carassius auratus EC-
    E45229
    Colour Pigment green GCP Carassius auratus EC-
    B45229 A45229
    Colour Pigment red RCP Carassius auratus EC-
    D45229
    Colour Pigment ultraviolet
    Danio rerio EC-
    A48191
    Colour Pigment blue
    Gallus gallus EC- P28682 B46137 PS00237 PS00238
    Colour Pigment green
    Gallus gallus EC- P28683 A42347 A46137 PS00237 PS00238
    Colour Pigment red RCP Gallus gallus EC- P22329 A37783 S12878 A36261 PS00237 PS00238
    Colour Pigment violet
    Gallus gallus EC- P28684 C46137 PS00237 PS00238
    Colour Pigment blue BCP Homo sapiens EC- P03999 I59533 A03156 PS00237 PS00238
    Colour Pigment green GCP Homo sapiens EC- P04001 A03158 S07060 PS00237 PS00238
    Colour Pigment red RCP Homo sapiens EC- P04000 S07060 A03157 PS00237 PS00238
    Colour Pigment blue BCP Mus musculus EC- P51491 B54679 PS00237 PS00238
    Colour Pigment blue BCP Rattus norvegicus EC- Q63652
    PS00237 PS00238
    Colour Pigment violet
    Xenopus laevis EC- P51473


    GENE DATA

    Click on entry to see database record online
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    Gene Subtype Locus Species Genbank Unigene Medline
    Colour Pigment blue BCP Bos taurus U49760 U49761 U49762 U49763 U49764 U92557 L27829
    94267506 94375074
    Colour Pigment red RCP Canis familiaris AF031533
    98242086
    Colour Pigment red
    Capra hircus U68004 U67999 U68000 U68001 U68002 U68003

    Colour Pigment blue BCP Carassius auratus L11864
    93120096
    Colour Pigment green GCP Carassius auratus L11866
    93297969
    Colour Pigment red RCP Carassius auratus L11867
    93120096
    Colour Pigment red RCP Equus caballus AF031531

    Colour Pigment red RCP Felis catus AF031532

    Colour Pigment blue
    Gallus gallus M92037
    92335211
    Colour Pigment blue BCP Gallus gallus M92037
    92335211
    Colour Pigment green
    Gallus gallus M92038 M88178 J05369
    92335211 92207951
    Colour Pigment red RCP Gallus gallus M62903 X57490
    91097551 91032108
    Colour Pigment violet
    Gallus gallus M92039 U53874
    97250263
    Colour Pigment blue BCP Homo sapiens U53874 M13295 M13296 M13297 M13298 M13299 L27830 M26172 NM_001708 AH003620 Hs.102119 86151639 94267506 97250263 86151699
    Colour Pigment green GCP Homo sapiens K03490 K03491 K03492 K03493 K03494 K03495 K03496 K03497 M13306 Z46936 X76097 X76099 U93721 NM_000513 AH005296 HS.247787 94285824 97422617 85151699
    Colour Pigment red RCP Homo sapiens Z68193 M13300 M13301 M13302 M13303 M13304 M13305 X76096 X76098 M28861 M28862
    86151699 94285824 89368905
    Colour Pigment blue BCP Mus musculus U92558 U92559 U92560 U92561 U92562 U49720 L27831 NM_007538 AH005191 Mm.56987 94267506
    Colour Pigment green GCP Mus musculus AF011389 NM_008106 Mm.89948 97385194
    Colour Pigment blue BCP Rattus norvegicus U63972 AV379380

    Colour Pigment green GCP Rattus norvegicus AF031528
    984286
    Colour Pigment blue
    Saimiri boliviensis U53875
    97350263
    Colour Pigment red
    Xenopus laevis U23463

    Colour Pigment violet
    Xenopus laevis U23463


    GENE LOCUS DATA

    Click on entry to see database record online
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    Gene Subtype Locus Species Genome Database Mouse Genome Database OMIM Locus Link
    Colour Pigment blue BCP Homo sapiens 119032
    190900 611
    Colour Pigment green GCP Homo sapiens 120622
    303800 2652
    Colour Pigment red RCP Homo sapiens 120724
    303700 303900 5956
    Colour Pigment blue BCP Mus musculus
    Bcp
    12057
    Colour Pigment green GCP Mus musculus


    14539
    Colour Pigment red RCP Mus musculus
    Rsvp


    References:
    1. Deeb,S.S., Lindsey,D.T., Hibiya,Y., Sanocki,E., Winderickx,J., Teller,D.Y., and Motulsky,A.G. Genotype-phenotype relationships in human red/green color-vision defects: molecular and psychophysical studies. 1992; Am.J.Hum.Genet. 51: 687-700.
    Goto Top
    2. Ferreira,P.A., Nakayama,T.A., Pak,W.L., and Travis,G.H. Cyclophilin-related protein RanBP2 acts as chaperone for red/green opsin. 1996; Nature. 383: 637-640.
    Goto Top Link to PudMed
    3. Fitzgibbon,J., Appukuttan,B., Gayther,S., Wells,D., Delhanty,J., and Hunt,D.M. Localisation of the human blue cone pigment gene to chromosome band 7q31.3-32. 1994; Hum.Genet. 93: 79-80.
    Goto Top Link to PudMed
    4. Nathans,J., Thomas,D., and Hogness,D.S. Molecular genetics of human color vision: the genes encoding blue, green, and red pigments. 1986; Science. 232: 193-202.
    Goto Top Link to PudMed
    5. Shaaban,S.A. and Deeb,S.S. Functional analysis of the promoters of the human red and green visual pigment genes. 1998; Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 39: 885-896.
    Goto Top Link to PudMed
    6. Vollrath,D., Nathans,J., and Davis,R.W. Tandem array of human visual pigment genes at Xq28 Tandem array of human visual pigment genes at Xq28. 1988; Science. 240: 1669-1672.
    Goto Top Link to PudMed
    7. Yamaguchi,T., Motulsky,A.G., and Deeb,S.S. Visual pigment gene structure and expression in human retinae. 1997; Hum.Mol.Genet. 6: 981-990.
    Goto Top Link to PudMed

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    Contact the editor: irpamp@irpa.org
    This site is maintained and edited by
    Dr. rer. medic. Markus Preising, Dipl.Biol.
    Molecular Genetics Laboratory
    Department of Paediatric Ophthalmology, Strabismology and Ophthalmogenetics
    University of Regensburg
    Head: Prof. Dr. med. Birgit Lorenz