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Protein Pages
Growth Factors

Recent update from: 14.08.02


Growth factors are proteins which induce proliferation of cells. They are necessary to direct tissue development by controlling cell growth. Growth factors are able to stabilise retinal tissues in degenerative retinal disorders.

Norrie Disease is caused by the a gene (NDG) which is necessary for neuronal growth (4), (14).

Another protein involved in the development of retinal disorders with growth factor-like properties is the gene for X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS1).

LaVail et al. are currently testing growth factors as therapeutic substances to positively influence retinal degeneration progress.
See references for further readings.


References

  1. Aiello,L.P., Bursell,S.E., Clermont,A., Duh,E., Ishii,H., Takagi,C., Mori,F., Ciulla,T.A., Ways,K., Jirousek,M., Smith,L.E., and King,G.L. Vascular endothelial growth factor-induced retinal permeability is mediated by protein kinase C in vivo and suppressed by an orally effective beta-isoform-selective inhibitor. 1997; Diabetes. 46: 1473-1480.
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  2. Bazan,N.G. and Lukiw,W.J. Regulation Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Genetranscription By Insulin Growth Factor (IGF) And Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) In Mouse Retina Undergoing Neovascularization. 1999; Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 40: S10
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  3. Chaum,E. and Holleck,J. Polyplex-Mediated Gene Transfer And Expression Of Human Growth Factors In Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells In Vitro. 1999; Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 40: S716
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  4. Chen,S., Wang,Q.L., Nie,Z.Q., Sun,H., Li,X., Snyder,S.H., Borjgin,J., and Zack,D.J. Regulation Of Photoreceptor And Pinealocyte Gene Expression: The Role Of Cone-Rod Homeobox, CRX. 1998; Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 39: S198
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  5. Cui,Q., Lu,Q., So,K.F., and Yip,H.K. CNTF, not other trophic factors, promotes axonal regeneration of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. 1999; Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 40: 760-766.
    Link to PubMed
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  6. Faktorovich,E.G., Steinberg,R.H., Yasumura,D., Matthes,M.T., and LaVail,M.M. Photoreceptor degeneration in inherited retinal dystrophy delayed by basic fibroblast growth factor. 1990; Nature. 347: 83-86.
    Link to PubMed
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  7. Faktorovich,E.G., Steinberg,R.H., Yasumura,D., Matthes,M.T., and LaVail,M.M. Basic fibroblast growth factor and local injury protect photoreceptors from light damage in the rat. 1992; J.Neurosci. 12: 3554-3567.
    Link to PubMed
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  8. He,P.M., He,S., Garner,J.A., Ryan,S.J., and Hinton,D.R. Retinal pigment epithelial cells secrete and respond to hepatocyte growth factor. 1998; Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 249: 253-257.
    Link to PubMed
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  9. Kusaka,K., Kothary,P.C., and Del Monte,M.A. Modulation of basic fibroblast growth factor effect by retinoic acid in cultured retinal pigment epithelium. 1998; Curr.Eye Res. 17: 524-530.
    Link to PubMed
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  10. LaVail,M.M., Matthes,M.T., Yasumura,D., Lau,C., Unoki,K., and Steinberg,R.H. Photoreceptor Rescue by Survival Promoting Factors in Constant Light Damage and in RCS Rats With Inherited Retinal Dystrophy. 1995; Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. Suppl.: S211
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  11. LaVail,M.M., Yasumura,D., Matthes,M.T., Lau,C., Sung,C.H., and Steinberg,R.H. CNTF Delays Photoreceptor Degeneration In rd And Q344ter Mutant Rhodopsin Transgenic Mice. 1996; Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. S448
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  12. LaVail,M.W., Yasumura,D., Matthes,M.T., Lau Villacorta,C., Unoki,K., Sung,C.H., and Steinberg,R.H. Protection of mouse photoreceptors by survival factors in retinal degenerations. 1998; Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 39: 592-602.
    Link to PubMed
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  13. Niehrs,C. Head in the WNT: the molecular nature of Spemann's head organizer. 1999; Trends.Genet. 15: 314-319.
    Link to PubMed
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  14. Rehm,H.L. and Morton,C.C. An expression cloning approach to identify a receptor for norrin, the protein responsible for Norrie disease. 1998; Am.J.Hum.Genet. 63: A190
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  15. Steinberg,R.H., Matthes,M.T., Yasumura,D., Lau-Villacorta,C., Nishikawa,S., Cao,W., Flannery,J.G., Naash,M., Chen,J., and LaVail,M.M. Slowing By Survival Factors Of Inherited Retinal Degenerations In Transgenic Rats With Mutant Opsin Genes. 1997; Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 38: S226-A1000
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  16. Wu,B.L., Austin,M.A., Schneider,G.H., Boles,R.G., and Korf,B.R. Deletion of the entire NF1 gene detected by the FISH: four deletion patients associated with severe manifestations. 1995; Am.J.Med.Genet. 59: 528-535.
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  17. Yan,R., Li,C., and Wang,S. Neurogenin 2 Acts Upstream Of Neurod And Triggers Photoreceptor Cell Regeneration In Vitro. 1999; Invest.Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 40: S167
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Dr. rer. medic. Markus Preising, Dipl.Biol.
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Department of Paediatric Ophthalmology, Strabismology and Ophthalmogenetics
University of Regensburg
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